The power electronics are composed of a set of semiconductor switches arranged in a block called an inverter, as it converts the dc to ac. The most notable achievement of the Li-ion battery development program for HEVs has been the announcement by Mercedes and BMW that they will use Li-ion batteries in their next generation of hybrid cars.10, These three Li-ion chemistries, which are the most advanced for HEV applications, are also being developed for PHEV applications. In 2009, DOE-funded activities in hydrogen storage, including Office of Science Basic Energy Sciences awards, were carried out at 41 universities, 15 companies, and 14 federal laboratories. The four strokes that make up one cycle are: (1) Induction,air/fuel mixture enters the cylinder (2) Compression,mixture i… Both areas must remain the focus of the next round of solicitations. (Telefunken bought Atmel.). See, for example, . The difficulties are compounded when the additional constraints associated with the Partnership are imposed: energy freedom, environmental freedom, and vehicle freedom. Available on the Web at . Consequently, it is important to maintain an active ICE and liquid fuels R&D program at all levels: industry, government laboratories, and academia, to expand the knowledge base to enable the development of technologies that can reduce the fuel consumption of transportation systems powered by ICEs. SOURCE: Reprinted from DOE (2009a). DOE/GO-102003-1741. Recommendation 3-2. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: Third Report, http://www.altdotenergy.com/2009/02/sandia-gm-study-finds-large-scale-biofuel-is-sustainable/, http://www.exxonmobil.com/Corporate/energy_climate_con_vehicle_algae.aspx, http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/review09/program_overview_2009_amr.pdf, http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/annual_review.html, http://www.whitehouse.gov/agenda/energy_and_environment/, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/mypp/3-2_hybr_elec_prop.pdf, Electric Propulsion and Electrical Systems, http://www.hybridcars.com/news/mercedes-lithium-ion-hybrid-2009.html, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/program/plug-in_summary_rpt.pdf, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/program/phev_rd_plan_june_2007.pdf, http://japancorp.net/Article.Asp?Art_ID=19769, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/merit_review_2009/light-weight_materials/lm_05_warren.pdf, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/cyro_compressed_auto.pdf>, http://www.dynalook.com/european-conf-2009/B-V-03.pdf, http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/mypp/, http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/news_h-prize_administrator.html>, http://hydrogendoedev.nrel.gov/pdfs/progress09/2009_doe_hydrogen_program_annual_progress_report_cover.pdf, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/merit_review_2009/advanced_power_electronics/ape_08_elrefaie.pdf, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/program/2008_energy_storage.pdf, http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/review09/fc_30_james.pdf, http://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/energystorage/pdfs/43166.pdf, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/merit_review_2009/advanced_power_electronics/ape_0_rogers.pdf- 916.8KB, http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/review09/fc_31_sinha.pdf, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/merit_review_2009/advanced_power_electronics/ape_07_taylor.pdf, Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members, Appendix B: Committee's Interim Letter Report, Appendix D: Recommendations from National Research Council Review of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Research Program, Phase 2, Appendix E: Committee Meetings and Presentations. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. The Partnership should consider conducting a project to investigate induction motors as replacements for the permanent magnet motors now almost universally used for electric propulsion. The DOE should establish backup technology paths, in particular for stack operation modes and stack components, with the fuel cell technical team to address the case of current technology selections determined not likely to meet the targets. Even though the DOE uses the system model principally for the purpose of costing and not system performance, the model should be representative of the actual system. The CEM project incorporates a high-speed drive (165,000 rpm) with a fairly low projected cost. Larger-scale stack performance and on-road testing will help to validate the laboratory data and determine the ultimate value to the program. The only way that alternative fuel cell systems and components can receive sufficient attention to mitigate the overall program risk is for the precompetitive program, sponsored largely by the DOE, to support them. Bulk amorphous alloy composition was identified and kilogram-scale production was accomplished by gas atomization. This work. Components. Recommendation 3-5. The predictive capabilities of the current CFD codes are very good. Methods for the recycling of carbon-reinforced composites need to be developed. Recommendation 3-19. TABLE 3-3 Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Budget Appropriations for Hydrogen Storage, FY 2007 through FY 2010 (millions of dollars). The total of 480 gal used annually at 25 mpg would be reduced to 451 gal. The Partnership addressed and concurred with the majority of the recommendations from the National Research Council’s Phase 2 review (DOE, 2009c; NRC, 2008). Hydrogen basic research is well funded in the FY 2009 program, and new concepts will continue to be supported. Available on the Web at . The cost penalty was found to be $3/lb at current magnesium prices. starting the car. The battery is charged from the electricity grid or by the vehicle’s gasoline engine by means of a generator. Public acceptance will demand stringent health, environmental, and safety standards, especially since one of the main reasons for hybrid vehicles is environmental. As the number of potential vehicle fuel cell manufacturers has been reduced in the current (2009) time frame, it is extremely important to maintain continuity and commitment regarding fuel cell technology from the perspective of the United States. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. The following activities are being undertaken: ANL: This activity uses metal (copper or nickel) foil coated with thin film Pb-La-Zr-Ti-oxide (PLZT) dielectrics. The projected cost is split nearly evenly between the stack and the BoP. These increased efforts will require increased funding for high-energy batteries and include leveraging all other efforts on electrochemistry and energy storage materials efforts within the DOE and the larger electrochemistry community. A novel microstructure was developed to enhance resistivity and magnetic properties. These are ambitious goals and perhaps may not be attained in the time frame shown. Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. As the four stroke engine is most commonly employed in modern automobiles, most information here will be derived from and apply to it. However, the coordination of the program (targets) by the fuel cell technical team could be reevaluated in some areas, such as the following: The system being modeled by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and used for costing efforts by the two cost contractors is not equivalent to the system expected to be under test for the 2010 goals assessment or the 2015 commercialization-readiness decision. Chemical hydrogen storage systems (typically regenerated off-board). Federal Grant Number DE-ACO2-06CH11357. This high pressure drives the piston out from the cylinder. Early market applications will. the drive train, the engine and all boltings. The electrification of auxiliaries, matching the engine operation to the fuel characteristics, and reducing friction through advanced lubricants are subjects of investigation. Anderson, B., and I. NOTE: The above are examples of some of the current materials and/or types of materials under investigation within the DOE hydrogen storage program portfolio of projects. A DOE hydrogen program solicitation was issued for R&D for onboard vehicular hydrogen storage to support the COE or as independent projects (2008). See for example . Besides the transmission and driving wheels, some subsystems include those that provide structure and support (frame), propulsion (engine), and guidance (steering wheel). Taylor, J. Metal hydrides materials were down-selected. Concepts beyond materials properties alone should be explored to meet this challenge for customer satisfaction, and will require coordination with the areas of production, off-board storage, and dispensing. Attached on each side of the rack are tie rods, which transfer the lateral motion of the rack to the steering arms - one mou… a. uto. catalysts to address the cost, reliability, and durability challenges is reflected in the current budget. The BES focuses on long-term needs, such as a basic understanding of materials, interfacial charge transfer, and the development of tools and processes for the design of new materials. The underlying operations may be different in how the steering is achieved for a particular vehicle and it is not needed for a driver to understand the full details. The two cases of high power-to-energy ratio and the high energy-to-power ratio battery characteristics for PHEV applications are listed in Table 3-5. A High-Performance Interior Permanent Magnet Machine for Hybrid Vehicles. The vehicle is then redesigned to achieve a 10 percent weight reduction using lightweight materials and/or better structural utilization. It should continue to be funded, especially the systems-level work in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering COE. When computed over 6 years using an 8 percent discount rate for future savings, the resulting net present value (NPV) for the redesign is $335. The latest data show the following accomplishments: Motor design. subsystem have yet to become a serious focus partly because of the continuing evolution of the technology (i.e., capital funding for fixed assets is not prudent when the technology may still change). Newer, lower-cost membrane development activities have been funded in recent years, and although the results of such. Although the BES mandate on energy storage is broader and longer term, it works in close coordination with the VT program to advance the energy storage needs for automotive applications. Such a design is being considered by General Motors for the Chevy Volt. “Mass-Production Cost Estimation of Automotive Fuel Cell Systems.” Presentation at DOE 2009 Annual Merit Review, May 21, Arlington, Virginia. NiMH battery will not meet the long-term FreedomCAR electrochemical energy storage goals for HEVs of a 15-year life with 25 kW pulse power and a cost of $500 by 2010. There appears to be relatively little work in the Partnership on battery charging. Marketed under the Parlex brand, Johnson Electric custom engineers LED based day running lights, rear combination lights and turn indicators … Linkage between the hydrogen storage and production and delivery activities should receive attention. Systems configurations no longer demonstrated to be optimal should be abandoned in favor of best proven technology. However, significant progress has been and continues to be made, as evidenced by field and laboratory testing. b 2003 US$; total cost includes any component replacement if needed over 15 years or 150,000 mile life. For example, the economics of recycling current Li-ion batteries is driven by the value of the cobalt contained in the battery (see, e.g., Anderson and Wade, 2001; Xu et al., 2008). But mass is not the same as size, and with efficient designs, low-mass cars can be made safe by improving crash-management design and reducing the frequency of accidents through improved accident-avoidance systems in vehicles and on highways. Battery cost will play an even bigger role in the eventual success of the PHEV application because much larger batteries are required. Washington, D.C.: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Although these have lower performance than. Cooling. The DOE needs to understand the trade-offs there. “blocking” technology for vehicle introduction. Recommendation 3-23. More specifically, as stated in its recommendations, the committee believes that technologies needed for vehicle fuel cell systems—and not just fuel cells for stationary, auxiliary power, or portable applications—should be pursued. Now, ever more complex electronic control systems, higher compute performance, rising data rates, and fewer electronic control units (ECUs) per car mean significant design, integration, and … The search for suitable onboard hydrogen storage materials has been broadly based, and significant progress is reported. Bandivadekar, A., K. Bodek, L. Cheah, C. Evans, T. Groode, J. Heywood, E. Kasseris, M. Kromer, and M. Weiss. The announcement of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering COE (2009) was made. Metal resource onstraints for electric vehicle batteries, Transportation Research Record D 6: 297-324. For the compressed hydrogen study, the 350 and 700 bar (ca. It should be pointed out that there is little activity in this area of electrical systems in the Partnership, and this is justified in the committee’s view because technology development is in the “competitive areas” of each OEM. The FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership focuses on electric drives that require a source of power that provides direct current at voltages of the order of 200 to 450 V. As shown in Figures 3-6 through 3-10, the vehicle power source is a fuel cell, an engine-driven generator, or a battery. The chassis includes the wheels and tires, the brakes, the suspension system, and the body. In fact, the codes are now being used to guide experiments and, more importantly, to identify the combination of engine control parameters that will optimize the engine and power-train performance at different operating conditions, including the use of different combinations of fuels. Mass adoption of lithium resources would place pressure on global supply, and recycling is an important strategy to mitigate resource depletion and provide an economical supply of the material. Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure: Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan. The technical team’s responses to the recommendation of the previous review were good (DOE, 2009c). There have also been significant increases in R&D activities globally in recent years on novel energy storage materials and systems with promising results. On the Road in 2035: Reducing Transportation’s Petroleum Consumption and GHG Emissions. Although the details of the motor and motor controller are proprietary, the motor controller and motor are reported to have efficiencies of greater than 90 percent and greater than 93 percent, respectively, for a combined efficiency near 85 percent, which is truly remarkable at such speeds and frequencies. Assembling your own car runs along the same lines, only the adventures happen in the driveway and bandits are usually thin on the ground. The Partnership should conduct a study to determine the cost of recycling batteries and the potential of savings from recycled materials. The primary focus of the hydrogen storage program within the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership is to drive the development and demonstration of commercially viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. A typical HEV battery needs to deliver power to accelerate the vehicle as well as to accept power during regenerative braking. Thus the battery is much bigger and operates over a larger variation of the SOC.

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